Working Memory Training Software
The term "working memory" refers to the capacity to store and manipulate information for short periods of time. Learners with dyslexia, dyspraxia, ADHD and other learning difficulties often have poor working memory. Our software is designed to train working memory and improve concentration and is user-friendly for learners, trainers and parents.
We sell three programs to train working memory. Each program
employs a comprehensive teacher/parent-led training course that has
been shown to improve working
Software comparison chart
|Memory Quest Flex
|book: Working Memory
Training - theory and practice
Each program has its own product page where you can find more details:
You can upgrade to Memory Quest Flex from either Memory Games program. Please contact us for details.
|Preparation||Learners, parents and their trainers plan a simple, motivational reward system that will encourage the learner to persevere with their training and improve their working memory.|
|Training||Play the fun auditory and visual activities five days a week for five weeks. The games allow the learner to achieve yet be continually challenged, thus increasing their working memory capacity.|
|Rewards||Learners enjoy their weekly rewards for continuing training, along with the rewards within the software.|
|Assessment||Learners and trainers use the work book to record/discuss how the course is progressing.|
|Results||Review results in the software daily, weekly and at the end of the course.|
Customers who have purchased a copy of Memory Games may wish to download extra files and resources for parents and trainers. These files are available in our Memory Games customer area.
Below is a translation of a page from www.minneslek.se, reproduced here by kind permission of LäraMera AB, Leripa AB and Cognitive Kompaniet. (Translation originally generated by Google.)
Working memory is a fundamental cognitive function that is
necessary for us to implement a series of mental activities, such as
reading, counting and solving problems. With the help of working
memory, we can keep and use a limited amount of information in our
heads for a short time. For example, we use working memory when we
remember a phone number, or when we follow an instruction. With a
good working memory we can concentrate and manage distractions
better. Previously it was thought that it was impossible to train
working memory. Today, research indicates that it is possible.
Training of attention and working memory
A study by Semrud-Clikeman, Nielsen, Clinton, Sylvester, Parle & Connor (1999) examined the effects of attention training in children with ADHD. The training lasted for one hour per week for a total of 18 weeks. The results of the study showed that children who were placed in a training group improved significantly on a visual and an auditive attention test, compared with children who were placed in a control group.
A randomized controlled study by Klingberg et al (2005) explored the effects of working memory training on children aged 7-12 years with ADHD. Children in both treatment and control group trained about 40 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for a total of 5 weeks. The treatment group used a version of the intervention where the severity and ongoing training is automatically adjusted according to the user's performance, while the control group was working the same exercises at a constant low difficulty level. The study showed that treatment significantly improved their performance, in comparison with the control group, on tests measuring visual and verbal working memory, response inhibition and problem solving ability.
Rueda et al. (2005), in a number of studies, have shown how children aged between 4 and 6 years old improved on the test measuring controlled attention, followed by computerized attention training. The training lasted only for five days and consisted of attention exercises with increasing difficulty, followed by the correct answer.
A study by Jaeggi et al. (2008) has shown that working memory training can improve adults' performance on a test of non-verbal intelligence. In the study, it also appears that the participants' improvement on the intelligence test appears to be dose-dependent, i.e. more days (19 days) of ongoing training gave greater improvement on the intelligence test than those that had fewer days' training (8 days).
Jaeggi, S.M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., Perra, WJ (2008) Improving fluid intelligence with training working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (19), 6829-6833
Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., Gillberg, CG, Forsberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2005) computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD - a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44 (2): 177-186.
Semrud-Clikeman, M., Nielsen, KH, Clinton, A., Sylvester, L., Parle, N., & Connor, RT (1999). An intervention approach for children with teacher-and parent-identified attentional difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 581-590.
Rueda, M.R., Roth Bart, M.K., McCandliss, BD, Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M.I. (2005) Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 14931-14936.
Experience of Memory Games
Between Autumn 2007 and Spring 2008 an evaluation of Memory Games took place with 55 school children aged between 7 and 9 years in Lund and Stockholm. The children in the study were randomly divided into control and taining groups based on performance on Ravens matrices, a non-verbal intelligence test. Children in the training group trained with Memory Games for about 5 weeks in groups of varying size (between 2 and 8 children). All children were tested with four tests: two verbal working memory tests (digit span forwards and backwards), a visuo-spatial working memory test and an impulse test. The results showed that children in the training group improved on both the verbal test and the visuo-spatial test. The study also showed that the children who were trained in pairs improved to a greater extent than those trained in large groups. The results of the study indicated, therefore, in summary, that the children, after training with Memory Games, improved in working memory tests. The tests also showed that the best improvements were made where one or two children worked in a room alone rather than in a normal classroom situation with many children present.
There have also been smaller evaluations of Memory Games in schools and rehabilitation centres. A school in Avesta kommun used Memory Games with six children aged between 7 and 9 in Autumn 2007 and Spring 2008. After training all the children had improved their performance on TVPS-3, a test which measures perceptual skills. Staff at the school also saw a major improvement in school work in the children: "They have learned the strategies, new ways to find solutions, self-esteem is better also."
Working memory development
For most of us our development happens between 4 and 15 years of
age. A 4-year-old, for example, is relatively undeveloped and is
capable of repeating two digits backwards. However, there is also a
relatively large variation among individuals of the same age.
Working capacity is like many other skills normally distributed
which means that a 7-year-old with much reduced working memory
capacity may be on the same level as the average 4-year-old.
Children with working memory difficulties generally have low results on all types of working memory test, regardless of whether the tests are mainly visuo-spatial or verbal. However, there are exceptions. Children with motor difficulties, for example, generally have greater difficulty with the visuo-spatial test than with the verbal, whereas the opposite is true for children with language difficulties.
How working memory difficulties are expressed
As a rule parents and teachers do not identify a child as having memory problems but rather a lack of attention capacity. They are easily distracted, have difficulty concentrating and do not listen and day-dream a lot. Children with working memory difficulties can often initiate a task in an adequate manner, but then forget the information necessary to complete the task. These children find it difficult to handle longer instructions which contain many steps. Furthermore, children with working memory difficulties are often not as involved in activities that occur in larger groups in school. They find it difficult to keep up and become easily distracted. They often have poor attention, difficulty in monitoring their own work and low self-esteem.
Children with low working memory capacity are often overloaded. The result is that it can be difficult for these children to complete a task that has been initiated, which may lead them to believe that they can not do anything at all. A working memory task not completed with no new information stored in long term memory means that no new knowledge can be obtained. To have a low working memory capacity can create learning difficulties.
Fleisher, A.V. & Merland, J. (2008) Executive difficulties in children: assessment and practical measures. Studentlitteratur.
Gathercole, S. E & Alloway, T. P (2008) Working Memory and Learning. A Practical Guide for Teachers. London: SAGE Publications.
Baddeley, AD (2007) Working Memory, Thought, and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pickering, S. J. (2006). (Ed.) Working Memory and Education. Academic Press.
Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory capacity. Hove: Psychology Press.
Andrade, J. (2001). Working memory in perspective. Hove: Psychology Press.
LäraMera Software AB, Leripa AB, Cognitive Kompaniet © 2008